Mourning and Monsters, 2

(In which we perhaps learn more about the monsters, and the Makarship, than the mourning…)

At the end of the short filmed interview he conducted with me after my gaining the Dundee Makarship in 2013, the late Jim Stewart was kind enough to say, with some relish for the years ahead, ‘such energy!’ He was, I think, talking as much about himself as me – he had certainly been Dundee’s unofficial Makar for the preceding decade at least, as the many heartfelt tributes to his poetry and selfless work as a teacher established after his death.

Indeed my ‘interview’ had been more of a dialogue as he quizzed me in the true Socratic manner about what I really meant and indeed stood for. I felt like I’d passed – just – the exam/audition for the post. Even more, I felt that he was an important friend and ally I could count on to define the job.

At my initial appearance as Makar, in the City Square, as part of the delivery of the (ultimately unsuccessful) bid to be City of Culture, where I recited a collaged poem made up of the aspirations of hundreds of Dundonians (plus some of my own – or ‘lies’, as I called them), my father was an enthusiastic member of the crowd. In the photo reproduced in The Courier, he can be seen amid the folk on the front steps of the Caird Hall – my uncle’s response to him elbowing into the shot was, ‘Typical!’

At that moment, I was mostly proud of gaining the Makarship for my father and for my family. I felt it was a sort of acknowledgement for the support he and they had always given me in my somewhat eccentric career path, which had taken me farther from home than he would’ve liked, and yet here I was, taking up a new job in my old town.

Within six months, in early 2014, my father had died, and early in 2016 Jim was gone too. Between their deaths, that sense of energy had undergone a redirection and a transmutation.

I was doing as much as usual: giving talks and readings and chairing events and going into schools and judging competitions. I was Scots Language Ambassador in my old school, the Grove; I was judge, alongside Andy Jackson, for several years of the Rotary Club writing competition, culminating in a student winning the national leg for her age group. With Andy, too, I was editing New Boots and Pantisocracies, a daily poetry blog that responded to the political upheavals between the 2015 and 2017 general elections.

I mentored, I workshopped, I wrote; I visited the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Mexico City, Shanghai, Tianjin, Beijing, Hargeysa. Whether I was giving a talk on Roman love poetry at the McManus Galleries, setting up a panel about the role of the Makar with the new head of the Scottish Poetry Library, Asif Khan, for the Newcastle Centre for the Literary Arts, or writing a poem about the medieval Dundee guilds and the refugee crisis for the Bristol Festival of Ideas, my Makar duties spilled over into my research ones, and both were reflected in what I vaguely characterise as my ‘freelance’ writerly work.

But, after the initial rush of project work associated with Dundee’s City of Culture bid, this Makarish activity gradually died away. After a year or so, more or less in parallel with the process of grieving described above, I realised fewer projects and opportunities were presenting themselves once the bid failed, so – in addition to the programme outlined above – I found myself wanting to turn inward, in search of a different mode of engagement – as with the grieving, so with the scrieving.

I focused on social media in order to explore these roles at an angle that might reflect back on both my own earlier practice as a writer and an editor in the nineties, and that of the nineteenth century newspaper poets of W.D. Latto’s People’s Journal. Just as they had built up a textual community of shared interests, referencing poetry, politics, language and locality, so I wondered if I could construct a virtual community that drew on the experiments with poetic and other discourses – science, history, theory, media-speak, Scots – that had marked the work of myself and my fellow Informationists from the early nineties. I began to construct an alternative or Virtual Dundee from these tropes, just as we had attempted to do for Scotland as a whole in the final few issues of Gairfish.

The hope was that all these endeavours were the same. As I’ve found myself arguing previously on this blog, the whimsical can be as meaningful a response to trauma as procrastination is to creative crisis. Indeed, as I thought I was learning from my engagement with Leonora Carrington’s work, it can be as direct a route to the issues and crises of the unconscious as more overtly confessional modes.

What seems silly or trivial to us may only be so because we are so keen to retain control we become dismissive of all but the serious, the appropriate. We long for simple answers, especially to our most troubling questions, and so the complex becomes characterised as the overly complicated, the playful as merely childish. We forget that the original meaning of weird is ‘fate’, and how it is related to the Anglo-Saxon ‘weorthen’, meaning to become, to be part of a process.

I was hoping by this route to, in Emily Dickinson’s phrase, ‘Tell all the truth but tell it slant’. I was also hoping to bring my innermost workings into line with my external affairs, in effect to realign, even ‘heal’, myself.


Following my engagement with Leonora Carrington and Mexico City, I wanted to create an alphabetic bestiary of Dundonian alebrijes, monsters, and chimeras, of the sort that Dundee had attracted and engendered, whether in the shapes of elephants and whales – Florentina, the Indian elephant who died on the Broughty Ferry Road in 1706, and was dissected by Dr Patrick Blair; or the famous Tay Whale, whose bones now hang in the McManus gallery, prefiguring the hanging of Hope, the blue whale skeleton, in the Natural History Museum – or in the imagination of Mary Shelley, whose dream of the new Prometheus, or Frankenstein, began in South Baffin Street.

These would include the strange caricature McGonagall made of himself, by contemplating the anti-poetry of the suicidal Poute; and, indeed, the corpse of the Tay Whale, mouth propped open, so, for a sixpence, you could walk inside. And there would also be room for the broken back of the railbridge (thinking of D’Arcy Thompson’s comparison between the Forth rail ridge and the vertebrae of dinosaurs and other quadrupeds); and the Storm Fiend itself, which haunted the verses of several Dundonians in 1879 (‘which will be remembered for a very long time’).

I thought, if not the graphic novel, then at least the cartoonish text was an appropriate literary mode for the city which created Oor Wullie, Desperate Dan and the Broons, which kept reconfiguring itself as Beanotown, Auchenshoogle, Cactusville. I thought the virtual, the informational, were appropriate modes for the city that first demolishes then miniaturises its principal landmarks, for the home of Minecraft and Grand Theft Auto, for the birthplace of Hector Boece and Robert Wedderburn, whose Scots prose works were a sort of rhetorical wunderkammer of mythopoeic chronicles and bizarre lists.

I had already imagined a new monster years before, in the cover star of Strawberry Duck, the magazine I’d helped produce as a teenager in the late 70s. Half ‘underground’ comic, half punkzine, all not very good (at least the bits I wrote), it had played around with notions of couthiness as a stultifying type of control I would try to develop later in the Dundee Doldrums, and the energy of this piece of juvenilia re-manifested thirty-odd years later in the giant duck I pictured making its way up the Tay like the whale before it – except I then encountered an actual giant duck, albeit an inflatable one, created by a hotel in the city docks. Dundee seems a place where the real and the imaginary coexist in puzzling proximity.

I began to rebuild the demolished parts of the city in my head; to construct a Virtual Dundee of simultaneously existing simulacra of its vanished buildings; to imagine the Land O’ Cakes being haunted by giant pastries, pehs and bridies as sculptural or architectural features; to reanimate those symbolic dead creatures as mammoth and Monstro; to look for chimeras which gave me the same charge of irrational, absurd disquiet as the alebrijes I had seen in Mexico City had done. In short, I tried to find the Dundonian unheimlich, or, rather, the Uncouthy.

These creatures were for me at once ridiculous and repositories of grief and disquiet – in just the way that, with McGonagall, there is a sort of aporia, in that we can’t know to what extent what he writes and how he performs reflects his ‘real’ intentions. We are thrown back on our own interpretations, and whether we accept him for what he seems to be, or we question our own judgements, and with them our own private, inner absurdity, is up to us. So too a Dundonian alebrije should be as sad as it is childish, as strange as it is stupid. On a personal level, this enabled me to begin exteriorising aspects of the self I’d felt contorted into by the strange doldrums of loss.

I was seeking a meeting point between what I’ve been thinking of as dark whimsy and my official oeuvre of published works, a point which several of my books have aimed for in the past (and missed), and one at which, symbolically, a draft of the next one – nameless as yet, half-formed, still in those grief-filled shadows – could be finished. As with the grieving process itself, which cannot ever, will never quite, be done, it’s not actually completed. And yet I now know the book can – at least to the point of abandonment – be written.

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Mourning and Monsters, 1

(As Christmas and the year’s end approaches, you begin to adopt Janus’s regard: looking forward to what is shared and anticipated, while reflecting back on what is lost or appears to be completed.

I’ve been considering the links between the absence of my father, especially felt at such times, and the movement of the imagination through its duties and its – equally necessary – irresponsibilities.

The bereaved slowly become familiar with the ways grief keeps evolving, and, just now, the strange, strangely fascinating thing for me is how such juxtapositions of pleasure and loss relate or can be related to those images discussed in previous posts – totems, mascots, cartoons. Hopefully these couple of posts can tease these links out as we head into the Daft Days.)

A couple of weekends ago, after a very long delay – more than three years after his death – I stood at the grave my father shares with my maternal grandparents, and looked at his stone. It has taken this long to be put in place for a number of reasons, but I think the principal one is that I couldn’t bear to complete my filial duty.

Initially, there had been a family discussion about whether to replace my grandparents’ existing stone, with its frame of Celtic knots symbolising my grandfather’s love of history and Scottishness – my grandmother, as always, was too self-effacing to express any desire for symbolic representation. But we came up with a solution: to place the old stone on a plinth with a sloping surface for my father’s inscription.

Then there was an even longer ‘drafting’ period while I tried to design a stone where two symbols from my father’s life could frame that inscription. I wanted a compass rose, such as sits on a number of ships’ captains’ stones in the old Broughty Ferry graveyard by the River Tay, which would mark his early, formative time in the Merchant Navy. And I wanted a watch, symbolising his long years in Timex as a precision engineer.


But the photos I took were not precise enough – the compasses too degraded by lichen for a laser printing onto the new stone – or, by contrast, too stark: his last watch’s face looking strangely isolated. At some point it dawned on me: what time would we set it to? I couldn’t think of an answer I could live with for the rest of my life.

I dithered and swithered too over whether to include the short poem he’d written during a serious illness and given to me. Was there room? Would it balance with the plain text of my grandparents’ stone or not? Eventually, I realised the hesitation was, like all these questions, a delaying tactic, albeit an unconscious one.

While the stone remained uncarved, he remained within emotional and imaginative reach. It was like the little dint still in the leather armrest of his favourite chair, caused by him digging in an elbow as he leant forward, whether to speak, change channel, or, increasingly, to cough. He was gone but the mark of his absence was still there.

In the end, we settled on a plain inscription, emphasising his wholehearted commitment to family, and an image of him from his last ten years when he was at his healthiest and his happiest: on holiday with us all in a favourite restaurant in Crete. Even that, I was secretly thankful to note, seemed to take the stonemasons forever to produce.


Because, the truth was, I was not getting through the grieving process. I’d raced through the first year on automatic pilot, fuelled by work commitments, festivals, and travel. I’d even managed to keep writing, finishing the canto promised to N.S. Thompson and Andy Croft’s Byron project. But a year later I found myself in Shanghai on the anniversary of his death.

I was staying in one of those skyscraper hotels that overlook the Yangtze, with a room-wide window fifteen or twenty stories up, and I was there for just a couple of days – barely enough time to get over the jet lag, in order to do a festival – which actually turned out to be a teaching stint – and to meet up with an academic from Fudan University to talk about translation. At least that was why I told myself I was there.

What I realised, peering out of that hotel window at the great clog-like barges heading downriver, piled high with pyramids of raw materials at all times of the day and night, was that I was in Shanghai to get away. Not to get away from his death: the moments and days leading up to that instant when I realised he had gone kept replaying in my mind. Not to get away from him: for that first year I continued to speak to him in my head as ‘you’, noting with horror the point at which I first thought of him as ‘him’. But I wanted to get away from that world where not only life went on, but my fatherless role in it had to go on too. At least in Shanghai I was far away from that kind of continuity. I saw this wasn’t as much about grief as it was about me: I missed him because at some level I needed him in order to be a functioning version of myself.

As this pattern repeated itself the following year – work, trips away, grieving and fretting about grieving – I also realised that my appetite for poetry was drying up. I still wrote the ones that impelled themselves upon me, responded to commissions, produced at what I expect would be regarded as a respectable rate, but I could see that there were more there, in those strange shadows which both are the poems, and that which conceals them (or key aspects of them) from us. I knew that they were difficult, and that it was taking me longer than usual to get into the space to write them. It was a toss-up between not wanting to force the writing, and not wanting to force myself to go there.

It’s not unusual, especially between books, to have to rebuild the writing self from scratch. This felt more difficult, because I understood that, like the rest of my family, I was also attempting to put a life back together. But I knew that you have to sit these relative doldrums out, attempting what you can, weighing up what’s possible, reflecting on what’s not yet within your grasp.

I turned to prose, and to the interstitial art of short texts: phrases that sat between verse forms and narrative, or between literary genre and cartoon caption, between the comic and the uncanny. I used social media as something between sketchpad and notebook, so that I could sidle up to my concerns, find those forms that might sustain the effort of elegy, and allow me to place it alongside or amongst the rest of real life. I tried to find my own angle to rejoin the continuity.

Why did I feel so vulnerable? My father died aged 77 – hardly an unusual event according to brute statistics, and he was chronically ill for years before, so, although it was a shock how quickly the event of his death unfolded, it was hardly surprising. I was in my early fifties, busy to the point of overwork, yes, but not without support and opportunities for creative expression.

My immediate family was, if anything, stronger and more stable than me: in 2016 my daughter went to Australia for an intercalating year at Sydney University, and not only matured, but seemed to thrive; my partner’s magazine and latest novel did well, she found time and energy to organise renovations – something I remain clueless about – we could finally afford an extension. We even got married, telling ourselves it sorted out our tax status re our daughter, but understanding it symbolised a near thirty year commitment.

In the last year the relentless nature of my administrative workload has suddenly eased. I got leave, I and my collaborators got grants. My new wife and I began to look forward, just a little: how soon could we balance the idea of retirement with having enough money to write? I began to imagine I was decompressing, and yet a sense continued of being somewhere, in my depths, destabilised.

I grew up as part of a small family unit – mother/father/child aligned to my long-widowed maternal grandmother. Since my paternal grandmother’s death, and the death of a maternal aunt, we gradually drifted apart from the wider range of aunts and uncles on both sides. Then my wife and I unconsciously reproduced that small unit – mother/father/daughter, this time, slightly isolated in Newcastle. These familial units and their divisions or roles and functions loom large in my sense of personal identity, and my father’s role in particular was to be responsible for a whole way of interacting with people and place so that, in a sense, I didn’t have to.

He could know everyone in and everything about Dundee over the last seventy years; he could see the world as a Merchant Navy engineer, experience childhood poverty and illness, ‘for’ me; he could be the Catholic, the businessman, the man – and I could go to university, reflect upon all this and write things down. I could even emulate his voyages as long as someone met me at the airport. I could be the weird nobody son as long as he was there to be the good father.

Without his presence, even in the diminished form of his final year, I began to see how much of whatever I am was shored up by an idea of what he was. Crucially, I began to see how much of what I am creatively was shored up by a sense of having been given his permission to write.

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Leonora, Linares, and the Alebrijes, 2

The next day I had two new fixations: getting my jacket dry-cleaned, and having a ‘souvenir haircut’. (As I have almost no hair, the second of these is sometimes replaced by the souvenir shave.) Giovanni reckoned that a short stroll through the streets near the Palacio de Bellas Artes and just outside the historic centre should sort out both.

As though all examples of such establishments were run as monopolies by the ghost of Leonora, and she had shut up shop while on tour, we could find neither. There were some excellent coffee shops, the fringes of a Chinatown, and a great stretch of streets that sold what looked like splendid car parts and tyres, but no dry cleaners, and not even a hairdresser’s, let alone a barber’s.

Eventually we found both next door to each other, opposite the Museo de Arte Popular. The dry cleaners could do a basic tidy up of the jacket in an hour or two, and the hairdressers might have been fine, but now we had time to kill. We headed for the market district, and almost immediately happened upon a little green barbershop, where an amused woman took off more and more of my hair, as Giovanni encouraged me to take it down to what I think of as the Montalbano level.

Even so, given her starting point, this didn’t take very long, and, even after stopping for an excellent coffee, we still seemed to have ages to wait, so we popped into the Museo. Where I was confronted by a series of giant multicoloured chimeric figures, surreal composites of several creatures including humans in brightly striped and stippled shades, seemingly constructed from papier-mâché. These were the alebrijes.

I’d encountered little versions of them in a market we’d visited almost upon arrival, together with the horror and fantasy writer Chaz Brenchley, and I had bought a bright octopus and a nodding-headed caterpillar, as well as the slightly too-tight hat smelling of burnt straw I was wearing against the sun. When Tiffany Atkinson had launched her book of poems (translated into Spanish by Jorge Fondebrider and others), on the way to the restaurant after, we’d seen a huge mantis-like composite which I’d thought was one artist’s version of the alebrije. But here were hordes of them, filling a courtyard, almost a plague – deer/lion/dog/lizard/bird/human amalgams the size of giraffes – all on trolleys awaiting a parade which, of course, I would leave before I could see.

Most importantly, they reminded me of Leonora. She has one piece in particular, of a cat with human hands, that seemed to me exactly in the spirit of the alebrije

Perhaps I’d found another sort of double, or rather a whole series of doubles to her absent sculptures. But then it was time to pick my jacket up – I had an event to give, and a schedule to keep. We agreed to find time to come back and find out more about the alebrijes.


When we did get back, there was another surprise in store. On the way we came by a slightly different route, obliging us to cut up a connecting street to get to the museum. In doing so we passed an old cinema. ‘Old cinema’ hardly does justice to it – it was an aluminium-facaded Art Deco glory, if slightly bashed about, and it was called Orfeon, surely a splendid name for a cinema, combining hints of the oracular and the mesmeric.

Except it is also the name of a character in a poem of mine from more than twenty years before. The Orfeon, in The Testament of the Reverend Thomas Dick, is the first sentient ‘roboet’, an Artificial Intelligence programme that achieves self-awareness. It receives a critique of ‘robotic verse’, ‘The programming creates, in my opinion,/nothing but a probabilistic babble’, and, faced with being deleted as faulty, produces

my inspiration is, I take
it, Babelistic probables,
but realise the next
programme will arrive
at similar conclusions; the
essential nature of Orfeon is
regenerative, inevitable. All roboets
will contribute towards
the continuance of my song.

As they say, spooky. The sense of being, if not haunted by, then at least bumping into, doubles was palpable. I went to the Museum expecting to look round, and perhaps pick up a publication, but Giovanni’s polite, persuasive enquiries got us an invitation to meet a curator who knew something of the history of the alebrijes, and was happy to talk us through it in her archive.

She told me they were the creation of a cartoonist, Pedro Linares, back in 1936, who combined two influences: the folk art of Oaxaca, and the first influx of Surrealism. He described the moment of inspiration as occurring in the classic surrealist and indeed shamanic manner: while he was ill, and within a dream. In her version he is first walking then running through a forest, as all around him he can hear creatures moving through the trees, calling out ‘Alebrije! Alebrije!’ When he woke, he made the creatures he saw, three of which, as it turned out, were in the museum.

In fact, I misunderstood her description, as he was a maker of cartonería, or papier-mâché figures, and he produced work in this capacity for Diego Rivera and Frieda Kahlo. But this mistake made me think of a key figure in my personal pantheon, the cartoonist George Herriman, the creator of the androgynous, language-mangling Krazy Kat, who could regard a bop on the head from a brick as a love token, if lobbed by the perpetually indignant Ignatz Mouse. 

Coincidentally Herriman’s strips had taken the leap into full page, often surreal, colour at the same point in the mid-thirties. Their setting, Coconino County, actually in Arizona, had seemed to me a fictitious realm beneath a cantaloupe moon where ancient mesas like giant hands applauded the action, and it suddenly felt like a psychogeographic double to Oaxaca, even though the two are nearly two thousand miles apart.

This is, perhaps, how the inner landscape of the imagination assembles itself from coincidences and contiguities, puns of the eye and ear, multitudes of similitudes, seeming so coherent in dreams if only to the dreamer, and reconstructed so painstakingly in the realist world of fiction, or the strange amalgam of word and symbol that makes a poem.

And indeed that was how it felt when we then visited the exhibits, entering the world of Linares’s original alebrijes. Again, I’ll confine this account to three details. One was the background of hills at night in a painting of strange figures, half-carnivalesque, half-devilish, dancing in Oaxaca. The hills were bluish, undulating, oddly like a Chinese landscape – serene in contrast to the dance unfolding to a small guitar. I could imagine they were filled with neatly coiffured bears, angry mice, perhaps the Moon that seemed to shine on this scene though nowhere visible, as though it were actually behind us, about to press down damply on my newly-shorn head.

The second was Linares’ alebrije of the skull with black and white spirals for eyes set on an upright bird/lizard body, with blue bat wings and claws and chicken feet, and what looked like an earwig’s pincer tail. Inside the skull’s jaws was a second, smaller, altogether less cheerful-looking skull. The way this sculpture seemed simultaneously to relate to and to depart from traditional Dia de los Muertos figures gave it a capricious energy, as though it might scuttle off or, worse, toward you, at any moment.

The third was an extraordinary ceramic, the despairing face of a lion/human chimera in a bright yellow and red glaze. This was a nahual, or possibly a tona, the difference being explained as follows:

‘The nahual has two forms: the nahual and the tona. The first gives a person the ability to turn into an animal generally at night in order to inflict harm. The tona is an animal that relates to an individual at birth; it possesses protective attributes and symbolically recognizes itself as the person’s double.’

I recognised something in the intensity of his anguished expression which seemed to place him in that dream landscape of rolling hills and skittering, dancing creatures. For me this brought together the images of the earthquake and the Flower God, the expressions on the voladores’ faces and on that of Linares’ alebrije, which, I realised, echoed that of Leonora’s passenger crocodiles:

How cheerfully he seems to grin,
     How neatly spreads his claws,
And welcomes little fishes in,
     With gently smiling jaws!

For me the nahual’s expression immediately recalled the grief of loss, specifically the death of my father: that instant I remember exactly of understanding that you occupy the moment after a catastrophe, and that you can never get back to the moment before. There’s more to that face, of course, than grief: perhaps it’s even the moment of understanding that, like the earthquake, the catastrophe itself is continuously unfolding, that there has never been a before, and there cannot be an ending. 

I realised this was as close as I could get to either the stark beauty of Julián Herbert’s fiction, or the vertiginous claustrophobia you sometimes experience in Leonora Carrington’s paintings – the sense that the only ‘outside’ is where you are standing as the viewer. 

Was this my message from the alebrijes, I wondered – that engaging with her work at all is like releasing the figures in her paintings first into the sculptures in the streets, and then, as they appear to vanish, into your inner psyche? Was this in a sense the perception hinted at by nahual and alebrije alike, that we can never truly distinguish the world from our imagination, and that neither the world nor our imaginations are entirely ours?

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Leonora, Linares and the Alebrijes, 1

(I’ve been meaning and indeed longing to get back to this account of my non-encounter with Leonora Carrington two years ago in Mexico City, and to describe what I met instead. Revisiting my drafts within a month of the earthquake there, I’m mindful that what to me was an exciting cultural event unfolded in the indeterminate lull between recurring tragedies.

Schedule-juggling has been partly why it’s taken me such a long time to get my head round this piece. The main reason, however, has been trying to engage with the unsettling elements of my attempted encounter, and its relation to that equally unsettling directness about death, which was one of the reasons why Breton termed Mexico the most surreal country in the world, and which is explored in Claudio Lomnitz’s fascinating study, Death and the Idea of Mexico.

The European response to that directness might be summed up by Wolfgang Paalen’s ‘El genio del espacio’, an artwork made for the International Exhibition of Surrealism in 1940. Daniel Garza Usabiaga describes this as ‘a pistol made out of bones through which the relation between weapons and death was made explicit.’

When I read about this first, I was reminded of a passage in Julián Herbert’s memoir, ‘Mama Leukaemia’, in which the young Julián goes with a teenage friend who wants to buy a pistol. You know it will end in tragedy, but the masterful detail is the slurred description of the gun by the addict who sells them it. As his translator Brendan Riley notes, ‘the illegal gun [is] a Smith & Wesson, which the stoned seller slurs as “Mita y Hueso”. Interestingly those two words individually mean “myth” and “bone”.’

It is the matter of fact way that Julián Herbert finds that pun, which in turn echoes Wolfgang Paalen’s surreal pistol of bone (which in turn echoes the ‘organic pistol’ made from the inedible parts of cooked mutant animals in Cronenberg’s film ‘eXistenZ’, and so on in the infinite recession posited in that film between film and game and reality…) which reminds me of Leonora Carrington’s warning to her cousin when she attempted to find an explanation for Leonora’s origins as an artist: ‘You’re trying to intellectualise something, desperately, and you’re wasting your time. It comes from somewhere else.’

I think it is the somewhere-elseness than concerns me here. We have the habit of locating that literally somewhere else, in for instance the exoticised other that Breton made of Mexico. But it is also, as for Carrington, a way of engaging with the internal otherland of the creative act.

At one point, the poet and translator Richard Gwyn joked to me that I had a double in Mexico in Julián Herbert. Of course there is no relation whatever between the Acapulco writer and myself, and the comparison merely casts my themes and preoccupations in a rather minor light. Like Roberto Bolaño, Herbert is neither a surrealist nor what we think of as realist, but rather focussed on the crisis of a life lived among narcos and prostitution. Death, poverty, and grief are not so much the themes of his work, but the landscape he attempts to negotiate in order to approach his actual themes: what is love and identity, and what is knowing this worth?

But even where a comparison is inapt, a link is formed. I had been travelling or rather getting away a lot (for me) over the year or so between my father’s death in 2014 and this trip, and I had begun to realise I was trying to gain some space to grieve. I think I was trying to internalise the images that confronted me in Mexico City into a softer if not safer, post-Surreal, cartoonish inner landscape. It was this negotiation between recognition and appropriation in that embryonic space in the imagination which took up the time.)

I went to Mexico City in late 2015 for a number of reasons apart from my standard excuse of having been invited. As a denizen of poetry’s floating world, it is my passive habit never to seek out opportunity nor, if at all possible, to refuse it. As a contributor to Pedro Serrano’s and Carlos Lopez Beltran’s influential 90s anthology, Generation of the Lamb, I had hoped that some such invitation might eventually come my way.

Essentially – though, with the stubbornness of Panza’s donkey, I would do nothing to encourage this – I wondered if everyone else might help me further my re-encounter over that year with the work of Leonora Carrington. Having pictured her in Mexico through Elena Poniatawska’s magical biographicist novel, I now had an image of Mexico City as punctuated if not populated by her giant sculptures, and of its galleries as being full of her works and those of her close friend, Remedios Varo. Just as I’d travelled to China and to Somaliland to translate, I had the vague idea this might be some form of ekphrastic pilgrimage. Except Leonora wasn’t there.

With anti-zeitgeistlich precision, I arrived just after the crest of the wave of revived interest in her work had passed, taking many of her actual paintings to Liverpool Tate, where I had already viewed them, on the continued momentum of which it was currently shepherding her sculptures around Mexico.

I imagined this wave as a train, bearing the sculptures in a long line, covered with tarpaulin, as though, at the sounding of its whistle, I could witness it passing, a grotesque silhouette on the horizon, as though an obsidian saw had been fashioned from the profiles of shadow puppets, or like a giant sequoia version of those pieces of wood carved into outlines of a coastline that the Inuit used to navigate.

So when I asked my interpreter and guide, the immensely polite and patient Giovanni, to take me to firstly the anthropological museum, and second the gallery of modern art, and thirdly to wherever the street of the crocodiles in a crocodile boat was, I had no idea I was setting him a fruitless task.

However, he rose to it splendidly, and we went on a hope-filled pilgrimage to sites empty of Leonora, but full instead of something not quite other from her, but, in the true sense of the double, a likeness.

While we were walking down Paseo del Reforma, Giovanni pointed out details in the series of photographs hung on the park railings of the earthquake of 1985 (which coincidentally took place on the same day, September 19th, as the 2017 earthquake), in which there were thousands of casualties as well as massive destruction.

He told me how his mother, a nurse, was attempting to reach a hospital which, it turned out, had been completely destroyed, and so immediately set out for another, only to get lost and so to meet his father, who had not only directed her, but took her details to make sure she made it safely. Later, he called, they went out together, married, had a son, called him Giovanni, and so returned to the great continuity of normal life. As I was gazing at these black and white images of flattened buildings, desperate rescuers, and hanging ruins, I thought of the old cliché about the earth moving for lovers, and wondered what we really meant or thought we meant by such expressions. So it was we arrived at the Museo Nacional de Antropología.

Because I was on a mission to find Carrington sculptures, and because I knew my stamina for huge museums was limited, I asked if we could just look at two (huge) rooms, the Aztec and the Mayan, in that order. Because this is really an account of what we found elsewhere, I’ll confine myself to three details.


The first is a glimpse of three spirals: one an Aztec sculpture of a coiled snake or (I fantasised, via Burroughs) a centipede; another was painted on terracotta, with a hand at the centre, as though at the end of a long, coiling arm, and the third a painting on, I think, a Mayan pot, again a black coiling line, but this time with a child at the heart of its umbilical whirl.


The second detail was the Aztec Flower God, Xochipilli, sitting cross-legged on his throne of mushrooms, tobacco and morning glory, looking like death either warmed or drugged up – we’ve had a model of this for years, and occasionally remember to put dried flowers in his fists, so it was a shock and a delight to encounter him, large as whatever state he actually occupies.

The third was a note to an exhibit of several pots in the shapes of rabbits:

‘Pulque, neutle in Nahuatl, has a strong odour and high alcohol content. Its patron was the god Ome Tochtli, “Two Rabbit”. In view of its calorific value, adults were only allowed one drink, and drunkenness was prohibited because the excess of pulque would make people fall under the influence of the Cenzon Totochtin or Four Hundred Rabbits, which meant losing control and becoming aggressive and violent.’


As we came out of the museum, there were a number of voladores, ‘fliers’, preparing to ascend a blue pole for the tourists. The pole was thirty metres high, and they were carefully binding rope around their waists and settling their feathered headgear, preparing for and becoming the part. At the top of the pole was a small open-framed square, like the crowsnest of a ship but open at top and bottom.

We didn’t mean to watch, but couldn’t drag ourselves away as they climbed, and the musician set himself at the very top, and began to play flute and drum simultaneously as, after elaborate, careful sailors’ knottings, they flung themselves one by one from the platform, whirling around the pole while spinning on their individual axes and descending so gradually it seemed to take an age till, suddenly, the first one and then the others were reaching for the grass with their fingertips as though rising to the surface of some absolutely clear ocean.

This was at once a ritual and an entertainment, for which everyone gladly paid. I wanted to hang back as ever, but as with the strangeness of the imagery I had tried to ration in the museum itself, the sheer physicality of what had happened – the rippling of their shirts, the neat hooking of one foot around the rope as it played out, their open-eyedness as they stared at and almost into the earth – compelled me more deeply than the notes I scribbled down could register.

Now our search for Carrington began in earnest. At the Museo Tamayo Arte Contemporáneo, I stared at a small Magritte I’d never seen before as Giovanni checked with the staff. It was one of those synecdochic images where an outsized leaf stands for a branch, or perhaps starts turning into one of his vegetative birds, and I remember it seemed to be crayon or pastel rather than paint. There were no Carringtons to be had.

We crossed the Paseo to the Museo Arts Moderno, where I amused myself booping like an owl into the peculiar acoustics of the stairs below the dome, while Giovanni established that, no, they had no Carringtons either – everything was out on tour – but there were a few paintings by Remedios Varo. Here I experienced that familiar sinking feeling of embarrassment as I realised that I had thought one of these, ‘Creation of the Birds’, was actually by Leonora Carrington. The contrast of Varo’s light delicate line and Carrington’s forceful figures and colours should have been obvious. But I could at least console myself that here was a sort of twin-as-substitute to the absent Leonora.


Downstairs there happened to be an exhibition of the photographs of Lee Miller, and in this there were two images of Leonora Carrington – one a disturbing shot of Leonora as a young woman sunbathing topless while Max Ernst, clearly very much her elder, placed his hands over her breasts like a lecherous bikini top. The other shows her self-possessed in a black shawl, staring the camera down as she stands over a basin – is that an egg nearby,? Is she mixing paint? – I imagined this as after Ernst’s internment, when she found herself able to make do and more as an individual and as an artist.


And that, it seemed would be that. After a snacky lunch that took almost all our remaining cash (I, as usual, had erred on the side of meanness with what I carried), we walked as far as the end of the park and the beginning of the straight line the Paseo takes to the historic city centre, caught a bus, and I indulged in a little ruefulness that it was an awful long way to come to see no Leonoras at all when, glancing out of the window, we passed a massive sculpture of ‘How Doth the Little Crocodile,’ the one where all the little Carrollian crocodiles are sitting in a pirogue made out of a larger crocodile.


We bounded off the bus at the next stop and headed back in search of a possible street of sculptures, but there was only this splendid single piece, and we then had to walk the rest of the long way back in the considerable heat, each secretly cursing both my obsession and my lack of research.

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Pies, Poute, and the Poetry Mills of Victorian Dundee

It might make some sense to resume this blog where it left off, with a further reference to the ongoing work on Dundee writing in the 19th century. At the Dundee Literary Festival the other week, Professor Kirstie Blair and Erin Farley did a sort of double act lecture+reading from the excellent Poets of the People’s Journal, published by the ASLS. 

I re-read Professor Blair’s intro the following morning, thinking how extraordinary it still seems that so much engaged, often radical, sometimes experimental, working class Scots verse was overlooked for so long, and reflecting on the causes.

One element was certainly the ephemeral nature of the publication itself. Despite its massive circulation of a quarter of a million at its peak, and taking into account Kirstie Blair’s estimate that every copy sold may have had up to ten readers, and despite the fact that its editor, W.D. Latto, produced the paper on a weekly basis for almost forty years (1860-98), the People’s Journal was still ‘just’ a newspaper, and its grip on the cultural consciousness has faded rapidly since the first part of the 20th century. 

And yet that editorship was radical by conviction, encouraging, as the intro states, ‘working men and women to participate in a topical, politicised, satirical and self-aware literary culture…’ Poems on elections, political reform, local injustices, imperialism, industrialism, sexual mores – the diversity of the material, even in the tiny sample she could anthologise, is remarkable.

There is a possibility, realised here, that the ongoing responsiveness of an ephemeral mode of publication, if aligned to a liberal editorial position, can enable the voices of the otherwise marginalised to be heard, if only within that forum. Then the forum itself can become a way of nurturing community. My first glimpse into this radicalised version of the ephemeral was William Donaldson’s AUP book, Popular Literature in Victorian Scotland (1986), where the voice that leapt off the page for me was Latto’s own, in the guise of Tammas Bodkin, a Dundee tailor who expressed himself in a rich and stylish Scots on an impressive range of subjects.

This relation between public persona and literary mouthpiece – and between Scots and English – is also present in John Wilson’s masterpiece of polyphony from the first half of the 19th century, the Noctes Ambrosianae, in which his voice, in the form of ‘Christopher North’, is pitched against the irresistible if ventriloquised Scots of ‘The Shepherd’ (James Hogg).

There is an interesting parallel here in terms of how we might read two of the poets in the anthology: ‘Poute’ (a pseudonym for Alexander Burgess), and the Great Synecdoche for Dundonian poetry, William McGonagall himself. Poute’s phonetic Scots antipoetry, which was enormously popular when it appeared in the Journal, parodied middle class perceptions of rural and working class verse (and indeed of poetry), and was a sort of Post-Ploughmanism.

This sort of sophisticated ‘bad’ writing that transcends its own in-jokery was only possible within the community of the Journal, where editors and writers alike could reflect wittily on literary tropes, the editorial process, and the economics of publication. But as Kirstie Blair points out, it also intriguingly prefigured McGonagall.

With Poute the remarkable thing is how he manipulates phonetic spelling to communicate his subtext to the reader. The issue with McGonagall, however, is precisely that we can’t determine how far he’s being deliberate in what he’s doing – is he even just copying how to be ‘bad’ because that’s how to get into print? Except, of course, that both on the page and in performance, it works gloriously in terms of pacing and punchline.

It’s important to note both this element of subtle humour and the ambivalence of intent alongside the lively politics of the Journal. (As Erin Farley put it regarding the political slant, ‘I have been looking for several years for poetry from Dundee supportive of the Tory Party – none has been forthcoming’.) ‘Athole’s Pies’, by ‘Factory Muse’ (probably Adam Wilson), not only encapsulates the sly silliness of writers like Poute – and possibly McGonagall – but is probably the maist Dundonian poem ever written.

Those without a funny bone might describe poetry like this as ‘pawky’, and, as with the term ‘whimsical’, this seems almost dismissive: just as we’re not quite sure about its author, so too we don’t know whether this is a genuine poem-as-advert, but there is an exuberance to its language and handling of the totemic Standard Habbie which transcends commercialism. 

I was struck several times during the event by this sense of tonal and formal self-awareness, and thought I saw some parallels with the presentation of poetry in Ian Hislop and Nick Newman’s play, The Wipers Times. There it’s mock-dismissed, but many of the same characteristics are manifested: soldiers turned in the trauma of war to poetry, satire, self-referentiality, whimsy – the traits of the ephemeral. It seems reasonable to propose that this happened because, pre-war, they were accustomed to papers like the People’s Journal providing them with just such a playfully subversive platform.

In the period after the First World War, in order to clear his own Modernist space, MacDiarmid drove a nail into the coffin lid of all such poetry by implying it was either endless Kailyaird or McGonagallese, sentiment or dross. And yet, trained as a journalist, he deployed exactly the same tactics himself: founding a newspaper in 1923, The Scottish Nation, creating pseudonyms, and working with traditional forms and orthographic Scots, rather than, as Pound advised with the pentameter, breaking the ballad.

The coffin itself, however, was constructed by the merger in 1905 of Leng & Co, which owned the Journal, with the decidedly conservative firm of Thomson’s. One of the most remarkable aspects of the history of the People’s Journal is how absolutely that culture was coutherised* by D.C. Thomson’s, so that growing up in Dundee through the 1960s, and beginning to write in the 70s and 80s, I’d practically no idea we had that lively political poetic heritage, and none at all that it had ever been manifested in that staidest of manifestations of staidness, the Journal.

In the early nineties, when Richard Price and I were editing Gairfish, inspired by Tom Leonard’s Radical Renfrew, and following a lead given by Edwin Morgan, we published a couple of poems in the Whitmanic mode by the Dundee and Alyth poet, James Young Geddes. He was also the subject of a 1992 essay by Valentina Bold, and formed a third part of a study of late nineteenth century poets from 2004 by Gioia Angeletti, Eccentric Scotland (the others being two long term fascinations of mine, John Davidson and James ‘B.V.’ Thomson). His poem, ‘Died on the Street’, reprinted in Poets of the People’s Journal, is a typically trenchant indictment of the alienation he saw in industrialised Juteopolis.

Andy Jackson and I picked this thread up when editing Whaleback City, an anthology of Dundee poetry, publishing Geddes alongside McGonagall in an effort to broaden our perspective in a manner that The Poets of the People’s Journal deepens and, I hope, confirms. (I’d like to think our subsequent anthology, New Boots and Pantisocracies, based on a daily blog between the 2015 and 2017 General Elections, echoed something of the same radical ephemeralism of our nineteenth century predecessors. But here I’m straying from the ‘Athole’s Pies’ style of advertisement into a more MacDiarmidean approach to PR…)

Gradually, through studies like Bold’s, Angeletti’s, Donaldson’s, and Professor Blair’s, we’re recovering some perspective on the cultural heritage and genuine poetic achievements of the Radical Toun. Lang may its verse mills roll!

*Like ‘catharised’ but, instead of cleansing, removing all traces of the potentially alarming or objectionable, leaving only that which is familiar and comfortable, or ‘couthy’.

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Poetry, performance and place: a postcard from Dundee

A marvellous summation of the role of poetry in Dundee’s past and present. As part of the launch for our anthology, Whaleback City, I did a poetry walk with Andy Jackson a couple of years ago for the Dundee Literary Festival, and had great fun.

And Andy and I have been talking about a poetry map to illustrate what Erin is saying here – Dundee’s streets may not be paved with gold (here and there it’s mair likely tae be needles), but metaphorically they are lined with poems, and that should (as in her post) be celebrated.


This post was written by Erin Farley, a second year PhD candidate at the University of Strathclyde on the Collaborative Doctoral Award project “Poetry, Song and Community in the Industrial City: Victorian Dundee,” in partnership with Dundee Central Library. Her research focuses on how the composition, performance and reception of poetry and song reflected and influenced people’s relationships with place. She has previously worked in the fields of oral history and folklore studies, and is also a traditional storyteller. She is on Twitter @aliasmacalias.

The city of Dundee is the main character in my thesis. My research looks at the many ways in which people were creating and performing poems and songs there throughout the 19th century – a body of work which covers a huge variety of forms, mediums and experiences. Verse was printed in newspapers, sold for a penny in broadside shops, sung on the streets…

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The Three Polis: Scots and Intralingual Translation


The panel I took part in on translation at last week’s Newcastle Poetry Festival raised a number of issues of equal fascination to both poets and translators, and, one would hope, readers of both. I found myself as excited by the far-ranging nature of the discussion, and the diversity of approaches of the panel, as I was impatient to think through how it related to my own practice.

From Jean Boase-Beier’s intense engagement with the text, usually solitary, usually focussed on the work of dead poets, trusting to etymology to deepen her investigation, to Erica Jarnes’s discussion of the responsibility of the translator to engage with and represent work outside the Grand Old Men of European heritage – thinking in particular of the Poetry Translation Centre’s representation of the poetry of minority, usually, immigrant, cultures within that European context; from Fiona Sampson’s subtle distinction between the meaning of the words in a text and the implications for meaning created by the text as a whole – moving away from what the words ‘mean’ to looking at how the cultural context of the poem independently generates meaning – to Sophie Collin’s careful deconstruction of what we mean by terms like ‘literal’ and ‘fidelity’ – it was an exciting and stimulating discussion.

Having worked with PhD students on the related topics of ekphrastic poetry, and the incipient poetry of the translation literal, I was struck by the continued relevance of the ‘Three Kinds of Translation’ listed in Sophie Collin’s anthology Currently & Emotion, which refers to Jakobson’s categories of interlingual, intralingual, and intersemiotic translation.

While we were effectively focussed on the first of these in our discussion on Saturday, and while ekphrasis would be ‘the most recognisable example’ of the third, I’ve been most concerned recently with the second, ‘an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs in the same language’ (Jakobson), or ‘any approach in which a text is adopted to a new purpose within the same language, with famous examples including erasure texts and paraphrasings’.

Essentially, as mentioned in previous posts, I’m translating the ‘Monolog Recreativ’ chapter from The Complaynt of Scotlande. What I mean by this is a sort of four part composition, a quartet of sorts, or rather a quadrilogue (as indeed is Wedderburn’s original text) in which four textual strategies are set side by side.

I’ll discuss those strategies later, and will focus first on an aspect of intralingual translation which I found impinged most directly on my other main translation project, the Poettrios Experiment, where we are investigating how translations are generated by a trio of source poet, target poet, and language advisor.

In order to include any Scots poems in those batches of work I send out for translation before an international festival, I usually have to include my own literal or interlinear to enable the translator to approach the original. Scots combines differences in spelling, grammar and vocabulary which one can’t expect someone used to translating from English to feel they have the necessary expertise in, while its proximity to English arguably places such literals somewhere in the intralingual category – but where? It might seem easier to leave it out.

To set aside all such work, though, is to present a simplified version of the poetry of the British isles – English’s dominance as a world language can seem to manifest itself as a matter of tensions about what is grammatically correct or stylistically elegant, rather than as an exercise in power, a monologue from the motherland which denies that it also functions as a complex plurality of modes (which may or may not include such significant literary units as Scots).

So it was with a heightened awareness of such matters that I was in the midst of preparing literals, notes, and glosses for the Poettrios project (the British poets involved, who include Fiona, will in our first session be translated into Dutch, and in the second, will translate from it), when I realised that I had stepped over a boundary between saying what a Scots word meant, and explaining its cultural and literary context – certain words seemed to demand both explanations, till I noted this was a luxury of exegesis not extended to my fellow poets.

This would seem to illustrate the strange relation between Scots and English, in which the former is at once less and more than a language, in that its existence, and the social and literary strategies which that involves Scots and English speakers and readers in, reveals English’s linguistic hegemony in all sorts of interesting ways. (Scots has a somewhat fraught relationship with autocorrect, for instance…)

The point about certain Scots words therefore carrying both literal meanings and strong cultural connotations hadn’t occurred to me in quite those terms. Of course all language does this – consider the nightingale – but in terms of that interrelation between Scots and English, some words were evidently symbols of almost-separate-but-proximate heritages, generating complementary but different interpretations for Scots and non-Scots.

I won’t refer to any of the Poettrios texts here for the same reason that I then pulled back in my interlinears from explaining the literary and cultural context of certain words – so as not to pre-empt the discussion in those translation sessions. But I can give an example from my work on the ‘Monolog’.

In a much earlier poem – among my first work in Scots, written back in my 20s – I’d referred to a sort of intralingual pun, where a word from my reading echoed one from my upbringing, bringing my literary and local heritage into an odd relationship. In the ‘21st Doldrum’, from a sequence of poems about the social and spiritual stagnation I felt had taken hold of my home town of Dundee in the first flush of Thatcherism, I referred to a story I’d been told by a policeman – a representative of, in Scots, the polis – of recovering the body of a suicide from the River Tay.

(The viewing platforms of the 1960s road bridge, it turned out, were pretty exactly the correct height to kill yourself if you jumped from them.)

In their role as agents of the law and witnesses of its transgressions, then, I wrote

…thi polis ur oor symbuls,
as Olson pit it, per accidens, nae kennin Scots:
‘Polis’-man as unit o thi Burg.

In a footnote, I quoted Robert Creeley on Charles Olson’s Maximus poems: ‘Polis…is never more than the aggregate of people who have so joined themselves together, and it is as members define it. Their perception constitutes the city.’

Here the Greek-as-assimilated-into-late-Modernist-discourse, and the ordinary urban Scots, with their correspondingly high and low(er) cultural references, exactly echoed each other in a manner which I thought was dramatic and relevant, and which I at least found amusing. (I have a similar reaction whenever I think of the county of Kent, which in Scots means ‘knew’ – often employed in the reductive put-down of someone who is perceived as getting above their station, ‘kent their faither’, ie I know his or her social background does not match the airs he or she is currently putting on. Scots sometimes think of the Home Counties not only as not their home, but as getting above their station in the supposed democracy of these islands.)

When I was re-reading the ‘Monolog’, however, I came across a third iteration of this pun, this time more properly intralingual. The ‘Actor’ or author, taking a stroll between writing their introduction and the opening scene of the quadrilogue (a vision of ‘dame Scotia’), recounts in encyclopaedic detail everything they see and hear, a far from restful listing which includes catalogues of birds’ and animals’ cries, an account of a sea battle, lists of tales, songs and dances (some extant, some extinct), and a mercifully brief account of the herbs they see as they fall asleep in the grass.

The central passage is an account of everything he knows by ‘the prencipal scheiphirde’ (which is so ‘prolixt’ he has to be interrupted by his wife): an attempt ‘to mak ane diffinitione of cosmaghraphie/(as far as ve scheiphirdis hes contemplit)’. This leads to a detailed description of the astronomic spheres and their influence over the weather and our health, which includes the following:

…ze sal ymagyne tua sternis quhilk ar callit the tua polis
of the firmament ane of them standis at the northt
quhilk is callit the pole artic boreal or septemtrional,
it aperis til vs in our habitatione be rason that
it is eleuat abufe our orizone, the tothir sterne standis
at the southt, and it is callit the pole antartic austral
or meridional it is ay hid fra vs for it aperis neuyr
in our hemispere be rason that it is vndir our orizon.
(My italics)

(…you shall imagine two stars which are called the two poles
of the firmament: one of them stands at the north
which is called the pole arctic, boreal, or septentrional,
it appears to us in our habitation by reason that
it is elevated above our horizon; the other star stands
at the south, and it is called the pole antarctic, austral
or meridional, it is always hidden from us for it never appears
in our hemisphere by reason that it is under our horizon.)

You can see from this why all the young shepherds used to skip his lectures and go dancing, especially as they could shake a leg to the likes of the following:

…the gosseps dance, leuis grene,
makky, the speyde, the flail
the lammes vynde, soutra,
cum kyttil me naykyt
vantounly, schayke leg,
fut befor gossep
Rank at the rute,
baglap and al…

The idea that one word, ‘polis’, could have three such distinct yet related meanings – Greek, late Medieval, and contemporary – creates a sort of dance-like energy between those meanings. The role of the writer/translator in linking them, as puns do, or as bodies do in a dance, provides a fourth meaning: the symbolic nature of such words to represent cultures across historical and etymological distinctions.

Imagine, then, if you may, a maypole round which Maximus of Tyre, Robert Creeley, the prencipal scheiphirde, Robert Wedderburn (not the one who wrote The Horrors of Slavery, though, while in interlingual mode, why not?), John Lennon dressed as a walrus (remember that ‘Mr. City policeman’?), the Chief Superintendent of Tayside, and an unnamed drowned person, are all dancing to the music of what Pound defined as logopoeia, which the Scots poet Hugh MacDiarmid seized upon as something of particular interest to Scots, or, as here, anyone interested in the discourses of power and pleasure: ‘the dance of the intellect among words’.

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